Services ("WLS") were transferred to Interstate, with the terms of the original WLS management agreements remaining in effect. As of December 31, 2018, our remaining 79 hotel properties were managed by 15 other management companies located in the United States.
The management agreements generally have initial terms that range from three to 25 years, and some provide for one or two automatic extension periods ranging from one to 10 years each.
Each management company receives a base management fee generally between 3.0% and 3.5% of hotel revenues. The management agreements that include the benefits of a franchise agreement incur a base management fee generally between 3.0% and 7.0% of hotel revenues.
The management companies are also eligible to receive an incentive management fee upon the achievement of certain financial thresholds as set forth in each applicable management agreement. The incentive management fee is generally calculated as a percentage of hotel operating income after we have received a priority return on our investment in the hotel.
Each of the management agreements provides us with a right to terminate such management agreement if the management company fails to reach certain performance targets (as provided in the applicable management agreement). Certain management agreements also provide us with a right to terminate the management agreement in our sole and absolute discretion. In addition, certain management agreements give us the right to terminate the management agreement upon the sale of the hotel property or for any reason upon payment of a stipulated termination fee. Subject to certain qualifications and applicable cure periods, the management agreements are generally terminable by either party upon material casualty, or condemnation of the hotel property, or the occurrence of certain customary events of default. Certain management agreements also stipulate that in the event that a management company elects to terminate a management agreement due to an event of default by us, the management company may elect to recover a termination fee, as liquidated damages, equal to 2.5 times the actual base management fee and incentive management fee earned by the management company under that management agreement in the fiscal year immediately preceding the fiscal year in which such termination occurred.
Many of our Interstate and WLS management agreements state that we cannot sell the applicable hotel property to any unrelated third party or engage in certain change of control actions (1) if we are in default under the management agreement, or (2) with or to a person or entity that is known in the community as being of bad moral character or has been convicted of a felony or is in control of or controlled by persons convicted of a felony or would be in violation of any franchise agreement requirements applicable to us. In addition, those Interstate and WLS management agreements further require that any future owner of the applicable hotel property, at the option of the management company, assume the management agreement or enter into a new management agreement for such hotel property.
The Wyndham management agreements guarantee minimum levels of annual net operating income at each of the Wyndham-managed hotels for each year of the initial 10-year term to 2023, subject to an aggregate $100.0 million limit over the term and an annual $21.5 million limit. We recognize the net operating income guaranties as a reduction of Wyndham's contractual management and other fees.
As of December 31, 2018, 108 of our hotels operated under franchise agreements with Marriott, Hilton, Hyatt or other hotel brands. This numbers excludes 42 hotel properties that receive the benefits of a franchise agreement pursuant to management agreements with Hilton, Hyatt, Marriott, Wyndham, or other hotel brands. In addition, The Knickerbocker is not operated with a hotel brand so the hotel does not have a franchise agreement.
The franchisors provide a variety of benefits to the franchisees, including centralized reservation systems, national advertising, marketing programs and publicity designed to increase brand awareness, personnel training and operational quality at the hotels across the brand system. The franchise agreements generally specify management, operational, record-keeping, accounting, reporting and marketing standards and procedures, all of which our TRS lessees, as the franchisees, must follow. The franchise agreements require our TRS lessees to comply with the franchisors' standards and requirements, including the training of operational personnel, safety, maintaining specified insurance, the types of services and products ancillary to guest room services that may be provided by the TRS lessee, the display of signage and the type, quality and age of furniture, fixtures and equipment included in the guest rooms and the nature of the lobbies and other common areas. The franchise agreements have initial terms ranging from 10 to 30 years. Each of our franchise agreements require that we pay a royalty fee generally between 4.0% and 6.0% of room revenue, plus additional fees for marketing, central reservation systems and other franchisor costs generally between 1.0% and 4.3% of room revenue. Certain hotels are also charged a royalty fee of generally 3.0% of food and beverage revenues.